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    能飛英語網
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    楊瀾TED演講-中國的新一代(英文演講)
    更新時間:2012-02-23 09:14:33
    能飛老師:能飛英語QQ
    TAG: 英語演講

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    楊瀾從社交媒體透視當代年輕人,選秀、郭美美、慈善、微博、大學生就業、地溝油、裸婚、“寧愿在寶馬車中哭泣也不愿在自行車上笑”等熱門話題均有談及,非常值得學習,特別是英語口語。



    The night before I was heading for Scotland, I was invited to host the final of "China's Got Talent" show in Shanghai with the 80,000 live audiences in the stadium. Guess who was the performing guest? Susan Boyle. And I told her, "I'm going to Scotland the next day." She sang beautifully, and she even managed to say a few words in Chinese. [Chinese]So it's not like "hello" or "thank you," that ordinary stuff. It means "green onion for free." Why did she say that? Because it was a line from our Chinese parallel Susan Boyle -- a 50-some year-old woman, a vegetable vendor in Shanghai, who loves singing Western opera, but she didn't understand any English or French or Italian, so she managed to fill in the lyrics with vegetable names in Chinese. (Laughter) And the last sentence of Nessun Dorma that she was singing in the stadium was "green onion for free." So [as] Susan Boyle was saying that, 80,000 live audiences sang together. That was hilarious.
    在來愛爾蘭的前一晚,我應邀主持了中國達人秀在上海的體育場和八萬現場觀眾。猜猜誰是表演嘉賓?——蘇珊大媽。我告訴她,“我明天要去愛爾蘭了。” 她歌聲猶如天籟。而且她還可以說點中文。“送你蔥。” 這不是“你好、謝謝”之類的日常用語。這組詞翻譯過來是免費給你青蔥,為什么她要說這個呢?因為這是我們中國版的蘇珊大媽很有名的一句歌詞。這位五十幾歲的大媽在上海以販賣蔬菜為生。她喜歡西方的歌劇,但是她不懂任何外語,所以她就把中文蔬菜名填做歌詞。當她在體育場里 唱到今夜無人入眠的最后一句時,她唱的是“送你蔥”。蘇珊大媽和全場八萬觀眾一起唱“送你蔥”,多有意思的場面。

    So I guess both Susan Boyle and this vegetable vendor in Shanghai belonged to otherness. They were the least expected to be successful in the business called entertainment, yet their courage and talent brought them through. And a show and a platform gave them the stage to realize their dreams. Well, being different is not that difficult. We are all different from different perspectives. But I think being different is good, because you present a different point of view. You may have the chance to make a difference.
    我想蘇珊大媽和這位在上海做蔬菜買賣的都屬于不同尋常的人。在業界所謂的娛樂圈,他們最不可能取得成功,但是他們的勇氣和才華讓他們成功了。一場秀,一個平臺給了他們實現夢想的舞臺。與眾不同不難,從不同的角度看我們都是不一樣的。我認為與眾不同是好的,因為你有不同的看法,這給你機會去產生不同的影響。

    My generation has been very fortunate to witness and participate in the historic transformation of China that has made so many changes in the past 20, 30 years. I remember that in the year of 1990, when I was graduating from college, I was applying for a job in the sales department of the first five-star hotel in Beijing, Great Wall Sheraton -- it's still there. So after being interrogated by this Japanese manager for a half an hour, he finally said, "So, Miss Yang, do you have any questions to ask me?"I summoned my courage and poise and said, "Yes, but could you let me know, what actually do you sell?" I didn't have a clue what a sales department was about in a five-star hotel. That was the first day I set my foot in a five-star hotel.
    我們這代人有幸見證和參與了過去二三十年中國的歷史性的轉型。我記得在九十年代,剛從大學畢業的我申請了一份在北京五星級酒店銷售部的工作。在日本經理一個半小時的面試后,他最后說:“楊小姐,你有什么問題要問我嗎?”我鼓起勇氣,定定神然后問道:“您能告訴我銷售部到底銷售什么?”我對于五星級酒店的銷售部的職責一點都摸不著頭腦。那是我在五星級酒店的第一天。

    Around the same time, I was going through an audition -- the first ever open audition by national television in China -- with another thousand college girls. The producer told us they were looking for some sweet, innocent and beautiful fresh face. So when it was my turn, I stood up and said, "Why [do] women's personalities on television always have to be beautiful, sweet, innocent and, you know, supportive? Why can't they have their own ideas and their own voice?" I thought I kind of offended them. But actually, they were impressed by my words. And so I was in the second round of competition, and then the third and the fourth. After seven rounds of competition, I was the last one to survive it. So I was on a national television prime-time show. And believe it or not, that was the first show on Chinese television that allowed its hosts to speak out of their own minds without reading an approved script. (Applause) And my weekly audience at that time was between 200 to 300 million people.
    同時,我和上千名大學女生參加了一場由中國中央電視臺舉辦的史無前例的公開選拔。制作人告訴我們他們想找一位可愛,天真,美麗的新面孔。當輪到我時,我站起來說道,“為什么女孩在電視上必須是漂亮,甜美,無邪的,像個花瓶?為什么她們不能有她們的想法,她們自己的聲音?”我想我一定得罪了評委。但是事實上,我的發言給他們留下了深刻的印象。接下來我進入了第二輪的選拔,然后是第三輪,第四輪。在經過七輪的選拔后,我勝出了。成為了一個國家電視臺黃金時段節目的主持人。不管你們相不相信,那是中國電視上第一個節目可以允許主持人自由發揮而不是去讀審查后的稿子。這個節目的觀眾人數高達兩到三千萬。

    Well after a few years, I decided to go to the U.S. and Columbia University to pursue my postgraduate studies, and then started my own media company, which was unthought of during the years that I started my career. So we do a lot of things. I've interviewed more than a thousand people in the past. And sometimes I have young people approaching me say, "Lan, you changed my life," and I feel proud of that. But then we are also so fortunate to witness the transformation of the whole country. I was in Beijing's bidding for the Olympic Games. I was representing the Shanghai Expo. I saw China embracing the world and vice versa. But then sometimes I'm thinking, what are today's young generations up to? How are they different, and what are the differences they are going to make to shape the future of China, or at large, the world?
    幾年后,我決定去美國哥倫比亞大學進修。之后我有了自己的傳媒公司,這是在我剛畢業的時候想都不敢想的。我和我的團隊做了很多事情。在過去的這些年,我采訪了上千人。有時候有年輕人走過來對我說:“楊瀾,你改變了我的生活。”我也為此而自豪。接下來我們一起見證了中國更多的變化。我參與了北京申奧,出席了上海世博會。我看到中國擁抱世界,世界接納中國……但是有時候我在想,當今的年輕人追求什么?他們有什么不同?他們如何去創造中國的未來,往大了說,世界的未來?

    So today I want to talk about young people through the platform of social media. First of all, who are they? [What] do they look like? Well this is a girl called Guo Meimei -- 20 years old, beautiful. She showed off her expensive bags, clothes and car on her microblog, which is the Chinese version of Twitter. And she claimed to be the general manager of Red Cross at the Chamber of Commerce. She didn't realize that she stepped on a sensitive nerve and aroused national questioning, almost a turmoil, against the credibility of Red Cross. The controversy was so heated that the Red Cross had to open a press conference to clarify it, and the investigation is going on.
    今天我想講講在社交媒體這個大舞臺上的年輕人。他們是誰?他們是怎樣的?這個二十歲左右的漂亮女孩叫郭美美。她在中國版的推特--微博上炫耀她擁有的昂貴的手包,衣服,車子。她自稱是紅十字商會的經理。她沒有意識到她踩到了一根敏感的神經,引起了全民對于紅十字公信力的質疑。如此激烈的質問使得紅十字會不得不召開記者招待會進行澄清,并且伴隨著調查的展開。

    So far, as of today, we know that she herself made up that title -- probably because she feels proud to be associated with charity. All those expensive items were given to her as gifts by her boyfriend, who used to be a board member in a subdivision of Red Cross at Chamber of Commerce. It's very complicated to explain. But anyway, the public still doesn't buy it. It is still boiling. It shows us a general mistrust of government or government-backed institutions, which lacked transparency in the past. And also it showed us the power and the impact of social media as microblog.
    至此,我們知道是她自己編造的頭銜,大概是覺得和慈善有關事件有面子的事情。所有的奢侈品都是她的男朋友送給她的,她男朋友曾經是紅十字下屬商會的董事成員。這個關系解釋起來太復雜了。但是不管怎么說,公眾不買賬。這個話題始終熱議與街頭巷尾。這件事揭示了公眾對于缺乏透明度的政府及政府機構普遍的不信任。

    Microblog boomed in the year of 2010, with visitors doubled and time spent on it tripled. Sina.com, a major news portal, alone has more than 140 million microbloggers. On Tencent, 200 million. The most popular blogger -- it's not me -- it's a movie star, and she has more than 9.5 million followers, or fans. About 80 percent of those microbloggers are young people, under 30 years old. And because, as you know, the traditional media is still heavily controlled by the government, social media offers an opening to let the steam out a little bit. But because you don't have many other openings, the heat coming out of this opening is sometimes very strong, active and even violent.
    微博在2010火了起來。玩微博的人翻了一番,織微博的時間也是過去的三倍了。單單新浪這個主要的新聞門戶網站就擁有一千四百萬微博使用者。騰訊有兩千萬。首屈一指的微博,不是我,是一個電影明星,她擁有超過95萬粉絲。大約百分之八十的微博使用者是三十歲以下的年輕人。如你所知,傳統媒體依然由政府掌控,社交媒體給人們一個宣泄的小出口。 因為沒有更多的宣泄渠道,來自社交媒體的宣泄是強大的,積極的,甚至是暴力的。

    So through microblogging, we are able to understand Chinese youth even better. So how are they different? First of all, most of them were born in the 80s and 90s, under the one-child policy. And because of selected abortion by families who favored boys to girls, now we have ended up with 30 million more young men than women. That could pose a potential danger to the society, but who knows; we're in a globalized world, so they can look for girlfriends from other countries. Most of them have fairly good education. The illiteracy rate in China among this generation is under one percent. In cities, 80 percent of kids go to college. But they are facing an aging China with a population above 65 years old coming up with seven-point-some percent this year, and about to be 15 percent by the year of 2030. And you know we have the tradition that younger generations support the elders financially, and taking care of them when they're sick. So it means young couples will have to support four parents who have a life expectancy of 73 years old. So making a living is not that easy for young people.
    通過微博我們可以更好的了解中國的年輕人。他們有怎樣的不同?首先他們中的大多數出生于獨生子女政策開始實施的上世紀八九十年代。因為很多家庭喜歡男孩多于女孩,現在我們年輕男性多于年輕女性近三百萬。這可能造成社會潛在的危險,可是誰知道呢?在這個全球化的時代,他們可以找別的國家的女孩做女朋友。他們中的大多數接受了很好的教育。文盲率在這一代人低于百分之一。在城市,百分之八十的孩子進入大學。但是老齡化問題也不容忽視。今年的統計顯示超過六十五歲的人占總人口的百分之七,到2030年將達到百分之十五,你們知道在我們的傳統文化中年輕人要贍養老人。這就意味著年輕的夫婦要贍養四位平均壽命為七十三歲的老人。因此養家糊口對于年輕人并不是件輕松的事。

    College graduates are not in short supply. In urban areas, college graduates find the starting salary is about 400 U.S. dollars a month, while the average rent is above $500. So what do they do? They have to share space -- squeezed in very limited space to save money -- and they call themselves "tribe of ants." And for those who are ready to get married and buy their apartment, they figured out they have to work for 30 to 40 years to afford their first apartment. That ratio in America would only cost a couple five years to earn, but in China it's 30 to 40 years with the skyrocketing real estate price.
    大學畢業生并非供不應求。在城市,大學畢業生的起薪大約四百美元一個月,可是僅僅房租就要超過五百美元一個月。這讓他們怎么應對?他們不得不合租,為了省房租擠在逼仄的小房間里,他們稱自己為蟻族。而對于那些將要結婚的并且準備買房的年輕人,他們必須要工作三十到四十年才能負擔起自己的第一套公寓。當對于美國人來說只需要五年就能負擔得起,但是面對中國奇高的房價卻需要三十到四十年。

    Among the 200 million migrant workers, 60 percent of them are young people. They find themselves sort of sandwiched between the urban areas and the rural areas. Most of them don't want to go back to the countryside, but they don't have the sense of belonging. They work for longer hours with less income, less social welfare. And they're more vulnerable to job losses, subject to inflation, tightening loans from banks, appreciation of the renminbi, or decline of demand from Europe or America for the products they produce. Last year, though, an appalling incident in a southern OEM manufacturing compound in China: 13 young workers in their late teens and early 20s committed suicide, just one by one like causing a contagious disease. But they died because of all different personal reasons. But this whole incident aroused a huge outcry from society about the isolation, both physical and mental, of these migrant workers.
    在兩千萬外來務工者中,有百分之六十的人是年輕人。他們如同一塊三明治被夾在城市和鄉村中間。大多數都不愿再回到鄉下,但是他們在城市卻沒有歸屬感。超時工作,低薪,無法享受社會福利。受通貨膨脹,銀根緊縮,人民幣升值的影響,他們生產的產品在歐美國家的需求量下降,這使他們更容易失業。去年,在南方某個OEM生產原地發生了駭人聽聞的事件:十三個年紀在二十歲左右的工人自殺,一個接著一個的自殺仿佛感染了傳染性疾病。雖然他們的自殺的原因各有不同,可是這個事件引起了巨大的社會輿論,對于外來務工人員在身體上,精神上的隔離。

    For those who do return back to the countryside, they find themselves very welcome locally, because with the knowledge, skills and networks they have learned in the cities, with the assistance of the Internet, they're able to create more jobs, upgrade local agriculture and create new business in the less developed market. So for the past few years, the coastal areas, they found themselves in a shortage of labor.
    對于那些回到鄉下的打工者,他們受到了當地的熱烈歡迎。這是因為他們在城市中所學到的知識技能,在網絡的幫助下,讓他們能夠創造更多的工作機會,提升當地的農業發展水平,在欠發達地區創造新的商機。因此,在沿海地區發生了勞動力缺乏的問題。

    These diagrams show a more general social background. The first one is the Engels coefficient, which explains that the cost of daily necessities has dropped its percentage all through the past decade, in terms of family income, to about 37-some percent. But then in the last two years, it goes up again to 39 percent, indicating a rising living cost. The Gini coefficient has already passed the dangerous line of 0.4. Now it's 0.5 -- even worse than that in America -- showing us the income inequality. And so you see this whole society getting frustrated about losing some of its mobility. And also, the bitterness and even resentment towards the rich and the powerful is quite widespread. So any accusations of corruptionor backdoor dealings between authorities or business would arouse a social outcry or even unrest.
    這些圖片展現出整體的社會背景。第一張圖片是恩格斯系數(食品支出占總消費支出的比例),可以看到在過去的十年中,食物和生活必需品在家庭消費中的比例有所下降(37%),然后在過去的兩年中,這項指數上升到39%,說明近兩年中生活成本的攀升。基尼系數早已越過了危險的0.4,到達0.5——這甚至高過了美國——體現出極大的貧富差距,所以我們才看到整個社會的失衡。同時,“仇富心態”也開始在整個社會蔓延,任何與腐敗和走后門相關的政府或商業丑聞都會引發社會危機和不穩定。

    So through some of the hottest topics on microblogging, we can see what young people care most about. Social justice and government accountability runs the first in what they demand. For the past decade or so, a massive urbanization and development have let us witness a lot of reports on the forced demolition of private property. And it has aroused huge anger and frustration among our young generation. Sometimes people get killed, and sometimes people set themselves on fire to protest. So when these incidents are reported more and more frequently on the Internet, people cry for the government to take actions to stop this.
    通過微博上很火的話題,我們可以看到年輕人的關注點。社會公正和政府的公信力是他們首要需求的。在過去的十年中,急速的城市化讓民眾讀到太多強制私人住戶拆遷的新聞,這引發了年輕一代的憤怒和不理解。有時候,被拆遷的住戶以自殺和自焚的方式來抗議(強制拆遷行為)。當這些事件越來越常在互聯網上被揭露出來,人們期待政府可以采取一些更積極的制止行動。

    So the good news is that earlier this year, the state council passed a new regulation on house requisition and demolition and passed the right to order forced demolition from local governments to the court. Similarly, many other issues concerning public safety is a hot topic on the Internet. We heard about polluted air, polluted water, poisoned food. And guess what, we have faked beef. They have sorts of ingredients that you brush on a piece of chicken or fish, and it turns it to look like beef. And then lately, people are very concerned about cooking oil, because thousands of people have been found [refining] cooking oil from restaurant slop. So all these things have aroused a huge outcry from the Internet and fortunately, we have seen the government responding more timely and also more frequently to the public concerns.
    好消息是,今年早些時候,人民代表大會通過了一項關于房屋征用和拆遷的新法規,將征用和拆遷的權利從當地政府移交到了法庭。相同的,很多其他與公共安全相關的問題也在互聯網上被熱烈討論。我們聽到有太多空氣污染,水污染,有毒食品的報道。你甚至都想不到,我們還有假牛肉。人們用一種特殊的材料加入雞肉和魚肉中,然后以牛肉的價格進行出售。最近,人們對食用油也很擔憂,大量的餐館被發現在使用“地溝油“。所有這些事件引發了互聯網上民眾觀點的大爆發。幸運的是,我們看到了政府正在更積極和更及時的對這些民眾的質疑給予回應。

    While young people seem to be very sure about their participation in public policy-making, but sometimes they're a little bit lost in terms of what they want for their personal life. China is soon to pass the U.S. as the number one market for luxury brands -- that's not including the Chinese expenditures in Europe and elsewhere. But you know what, half of those consumers are earning a salary below 2,000 U.S. dollars. They're not rich at all. They're taking those bags and clothes as a sense of identity and social status. And this is a girl explicitly saying on a TV dating show that she would rather cry in a BMW than smile on a bicycle. But of course, we do have young people who would still prefer to smile, whether in a BMW or [on] a bicycle.
    從一方面看起來,年輕人已參與到公共政策的制定中,但是從另一方面看,他們對于自己個人生活的需要有著些許的迷失。中國會超過美國成為世界第一的奢侈品消費市場,這還不包括中國人在歐洲及其他地區的消費。但是你知道嗎?半數的消費者的薪水低于兩千美元。他們一點都不富裕。他們把這些包,衣服作為標榜他們身份和社會地位的象征。在一檔電視約會秀中,一個女孩直白的說她寧愿在寶馬車中哭泣也不愿在自行車上笑。當然,我們有年輕人喜歡笑,不管在寶馬車中還是自行車上。

    So in the next picture, you see a very popular phenomenon called "naked" wedding, or "naked" marriage. It does not mean they will wear nothing in the wedding, but it shows that these young couples are ready to get married without a house, without a car, without a diamond ring and without a wedding banquet, to show their commitment to true love. And also, people are doing good through social media. And the first picture showed us that a truck caging 500 homeless and kidnapped dogs for food processing was spotted and stopped on the highway with the whole country watching through microblogging. People were donating money, dog food and offering volunteer work to stop that truck. And after hours of negotiation, 500 dogs were rescued. And here also people are helping to find missing children. A father posted his son's picture onto the Internet. After thousands of [unclear], the child was found, and we witnessed the reunion of the family through microblogging.
    在下一張圖片里,你看到一個非常流行的現象叫做”裸婚“。這不是說他們在婚禮上不穿衣服,這是在說即使沒有房子,車子,沒有鉆石戒指和盛大的婚禮,這些年輕夫婦也愿意結成連理,顯示他們對于愛情的承諾。通過社交媒體,人們做著好的事。第一張圖片告訴我們,整個國家通過微博看到了這裝有500只將用于食品加工的流浪狗的卡車被發現并且截停在高速公路上。人們自愿捐款,送狗糧并且自愿去截停這輛卡車。在數小時的協商下,五百只流浪狗被解救了。還有人幫助尋找走失的小孩。一位父親在網上上傳了兒子的照片。在成千上萬的轉發后,孩子找到了,我們也通過微博見證了這家人的重聚。

    So happiness is the most popular word we have heard through the past two years. Happiness is not only related to personal experiences and personal values, but also, it's about the environment. People are thinking about the following questions: Are we going to sacrifice our environment further to produce higher GDP? How are we going to perform our social and political reform to keep pace with economic growth, to keep sustainability and stability? And also, how capable is the system of self-correctness to keep more people content with all sorts of friction going on at the same time? I guess these are the questions people are going to answer. And our younger generations are going to transform this country while at the same time being transformed themselves.
    在過去的兩年里幸福是我們聽到的最流行的詞。幸福不僅僅是個人的經歷和個人價值,幸福也關乎環境。人們在思考這樣的問題:我們真的要為了更高的GDP去犧牲我們的環境嗎?我們如何在實施我們社會政治改革的同時,保持經濟增長的可持續性和穩定性?一個系統的自我更正能力如何讓更多的人對于同時發生的各種摩擦滿意?我想這些問題將會被解答。我們年輕的一代在改變自己的同時也必將改變這個國家。

    Thank you very much.
    謝謝。

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